2021 MIPS Measure #478: Functional Status Change for Patients with Neck Impairments

Measure TypeHigh Priority Measure?Collection Type(s)
Patient Reported OutcomeyesMIPS CQMs SpecificationsMeasure


Measure Description

This is a patient-reported outcome performance measure (PRO-PM) consisting of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of risk- adjusted change in functional status (FS) for patients aged 14+ with neck impairments. The change in FS is assessed using the Neck FS PROM.* The measure is risk-adjusted to patient characteristics known to be associated with FS outcomes. It is used as a performance measure at the patient, individual clinician, and clinic levels to assess quality.

*The Neck FS PROM is an item-response theory-based computer adaptive test (CAT). In addition to the CAT version, which provides for reduced patient response burden, it is available as a 10-item short form (static/paper-pencil).


This outcome measure is to be submitted once per Treatment Episode for all patients with a functional deficit related to the neck. This is an outcome measure, and its calculation requires submitting of the patient’s FS PROM score, as a minimum, at the start (Initial Evaluation or Intake) and again at the conclusion (Discharge) of a Treatment Episode. The Initial Evaluation score is recorded during the first treatment encounter, and the Discharge score is recorded at or near the conclusion of the final treatment encounter. It is anticipated that Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians providing treatment for functional neck deficits will submit this measure.

Measure Submission Type:

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.


Patients aged 14+ who initiated rehabilitation therapy, chiropractic, or medical episodes of care for neck impairments including but not limited to cervical (neck) pain, radiculopathy, strain, sprain, stenosis, myelopathy, spondylosis or disc disorders

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients 14 years and older


Patient encounter during the performance period identifying evaluation (CPT or M-code): 97161, 97162, 97163, 97165, 97166, 97167, 99201, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 98940, 98941, 98942, 98943 or M1143


The proportion of a provider’s (clinic’s or clinician’s) patient care episodes that met or exceeded the risk-adjusted predicted Residual Change Score


The Residual Change Score is defined as the difference between the Actual and Predicted Change Scores where
• The Actual Score is the patient’s Functional Status (FS) Score,
• The Actual Change Score is the change in the patient’s FS score from Admission to Discharge, and
• The Predicted Change Score is the risk-adjusted prediction of FS change

Calculating the Residual Change Score, Example:
Actual Score at Admission = 45
Actual Score at Discharge = 60
Actual Change Score (Discharge minus Admission) = +15
Predicted Change Score = +10
Residual (Actual Change minus Predicted) = +5

NUMERATOR NOTE: Performance may be calculated on 3 levels as follows:
1. Patient Level: For the individual patient episode, the patient’s Actual FS scores relative to the risk-adjusted predicted. This level should be used for optimizing care as described below.*
2. Clinician Level: The average of the Residuals for patient care episodes managed by a clinician (individual provider) over a 12 month time period.
3. Clinic Level: The average of the Residuals for patient care episodes managed by a group of clinicians within a clinic over a 12 month time period.

* A provider’s (clinician’s or clinic’s) performance must be assessed based on an average all of the provider’s patient episodes. On the level of the individual patient, variation is expected. When an individual episode does not result in meeting or exceeding the performance standard, the functional data should be useful to the provider in optimizing the balance of effectiveness/efficiency for that particular care episode. For example, if patient-perceived function is not improving, or has plateaued in progress, that data may be a component of provider-patient communication and care decision-making such as the following examples:

1. Does the provider understand the patient’s perception of his/her current level of function?
2. Should the treatment plan be modified?
3. Should the patient be discharged sooner than later?
4. Should the patient be referred to a different care provider?

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: The Residual Change Score is equal to or greater than 0 (G2152)


Denominator Exception: Patient refused to participate at admission and/or discharge; patient unable to complete the Neck FS PROM at admission or discharge due to cognitive deficit, visual deficit, motor deficit, language barrier, or low reading level, and a suitable proxy/recorder is not available; patient self-discharged early; medical reason (G2166)


Performance Not Met: The Residual Change Score is less than 0 (G2167)


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