2023 # 134 Preventive Care and Screening: Screening for Depression and Follow-Up Plan

CMS Measure ID: #134

Collection Type: CQM, eCQM, MVP

Reporting Frequency: Once per patient per year

Outcome: No

High Priority: No

NQS Domain: Community, Population and Public Health

Measure Age: > 2 years

Instructions

This measure is to be submitted a minimum of once per performance period for patients seen during the performance period. The most recent quality-data code submitted will be used for performance calculation. This measure may be submitted by Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who perform the quality actions described in the measure based on the services provided and the measure-specific denominator coding. The follow-up plan must be related to a positive depression screening, example: “Patient referred for psychiatric evaluation due to positive depression screening.”

NOTE: Patient encounters for this measure conducted via telehealth (e.g., encounters coded with GQ, GT, 95, or POS 02 modifiers) are allowable.

Measure Submission Type:

The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality-data codes listed do not need to be submitted for registry submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those registries that utilize claims data.

Description

Percentage of patients aged 12 years and older screened for depression on the date of the encounter or up to 14 days prior to the date of the encounter using an age-appropriate standardized depression screening tool AND if positive, a follow-up plan is documented on the date of or up to two days after the date of the qualifying encounter

2022 Benchmarks (from 2020 CMS data)

Registry

Topped out: No
Capped at 7: No

Minimum: 0 – 37.95
Decile 3: 37.96 – 66.95
Decile 4: 66.96 – 84.56
Decile 5: 84.57 – 92.9
Decile 6: 92.91 – 98.11
Decile 7: 98.12 – 99.68
Decile 8: 99.69 – 99.99
Decile 10: 100 – 100

eCQM

Topped out: No
Capped at 7: No

Minimum: 0 – 7.06
Decile 3: 7.07 – 13.93
Decile 4: 13.94 – 22.45
Decile 5: 22.46 – 33.21
Decile 6: 33.22 – 45.26
Decile 7: 45.27 – 57.99
Decile 8: 58 – 71.7
Decile 9: 71.71 – 88.82
Decile 10: 88.83 – 100

Denominator

All patients aged 12 years and older at the beginning of the measurement period with at least one qualifying encounter during the measurement period

Definition:

Not Eligible for Depression Screening or Follow-Up Plan (Denominator Exclusion) –

  • Patients who have been diagnosed with depression
    • The following codes would be sufficient to define the Denominator Exclusion of depression: F01.51, F01.511, F01.518, F01.52, F01.53, F01.54, F01.A0, F01.A11, F01.A18, F01.A2, F01.A3, F01.A4, F01.B0, F01.B11, F01.B18, F01.B2, F01.B3, F01.B4, F01.C0, F01.C11, F01.C18, F01.C2, F01.C3, F01.C4, F32.A, F32.0, F32.1, F32.2, F32.3, F32.4, F32.5, F32.89, F32.9, F33.0, F33.1, F33.2, F33.3, F33.40, F33.41, F33.42, F33.8, F33.9, F34.1, F34.81, F34.89, F43.21, F43.23, F53.0, F53.1, O90.6, O99.340, O99.341, O99.342, O99.343, O99.345
    • For historical reference purposes these ICD-9 codes if documented would be sufficient to define the Denominator Exclusion of depression: 290.13, 290.21, 290.43, 296.20, 296.21, 296.22, 296.23, 296.24, 296.25, 296.26, 296.30, 296.31, 296.32, 296.33, 296.34, 296.35, 296.36, 296.81, 296.82, 298.0, 300.4, 301 .12, 309.0, 309.1, 309.28, 311
  • Patients who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder
    • The following codes would be sufficient to define the Denominator Exclusion of bipolar disorder: F30.2, F30.3, F30.4, F30.8, F30.9, F30.10, F30.11, F30.12, F30.13, F31.0, F31.10, F31.11, F31.12, F31.13, F31.2, F31.30, F31.31, F31.32, F31.4, F31.5, F31.60, F31.61, F31.62, F31.63, F31.64, F31.70, F31.71, F31.72, F31.73, F31.74, F31.75, F31.76, F31.77, F31.78, F31.81, F31.89, F31.9
    • For historical reference purposes these ICD-9 codes if documented would be sufficient to define the Denominator Exclusion of bipolar disorder: 296.00, 296.01, 296.02, 296.03, 296.04, 296.05, 296.06, 296.40, 296.41, 296.42, 296.43, 296.44, 296.45, 296.46, 296.50, 296.51, 296.52, 296.53, 296.54, 296.55, 296.56, 296.60, 296.61, 296.62, 296.63, 296.64, 296.65, 296.66, 296.7, 296.80, 296.81, 296.82, 296.89

DENOMINATOR NOTE: The intent of the measure is to screen for depression in patients who have never had a diagnosis of depression or bipolar disorder prior to the eligible encounter used to evaluate the numerator. Patients who have been diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder will be excluded from the measure.

*Signifies that this CPT Category I code is a non-covered service under the Medicare Part B Physician Fee Schedule (PFS). These non-covered services should be counted in the denominator population for MIPS CQMs.

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Patients aged ≥ 12 years at the beginning of the measurement period

AND

Patient encounter during the performance period (CPT or HCPCS): 59400, 59510, 59610, 59618, 90791, 90792, 90832, 90834, 90837, 92625, 96105, 96110, 96112, 96116, 96125, 96136, 96138, 96156, 96158, 97161, 97162, 97163, 97164, 97165, 97166, 97167, 98966, 98967, 98968, 99078, 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215, 99304, 99305, 99306, 99307, 99308, 99309, 99310, 99315, 99316, 99341, 99342, 99344, 99345, 99347, 99348, 99349, 99350, 99401*, 99402*, 99403*, 99424, 99441, 99442, 99443,  99483, 99484, 99492, 99493, 99384*, 99385*, 99386*, 99387*, 99394*, 99395*, 99396*, 99397*, G0101, G0402, G0438, G0439, G0444

WITHOUT

Place of Service (POS): 12

AND NOT

DENOMINATOR EXCLUSION:

Documentation stating the patient has had a diagnosis of depression or has had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder: G9717

Numerator

Patients screened for depression on the date of the encounter or up to 14 days prior to the date of the encounter using an age-appropriate standardized tool AND if positive, a follow-up plan is documented on the date of or up to two days after the date of the qualifying encounter

Definitions:

Screening – Completion of a clinical or diagnostic tool used to identify people at risk of developing or having a certain disease or condition, even in the absence of symptoms.

Standardized Depression Screening Tool – A normalized and validated depression screening tool developed for the patient population in which it is being utilized.

Examples of standardized depression screening tools include but are not limited to:

Adolescent Screening Tools (12-17 years)

Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents (PHQ-A), Beck Depression Inventory-Primary Care Version (BDI-PC), Mood Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17), and PRIME MD-PHQ-2

Adult Screening Tools (18 years and older)

Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI or BDI-II), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Depression Scale (DEPS), Duke Anxiety- Depression Scale (DADS), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), PRIME MD-PHQ-2, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QID-SR), Computerized Adaptive Testing Depression Inventory (CAT-DI), and Computerized Adaptive Diagnostic Screener (CAD-MDD)

Perinatal Screening Tools

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Postpartum Depression Screening Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory–II, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale

Follow-Up Plan – Documented follow-up for a positive depression screening must include one or more of the following:

  • Referral to a provider for additional evaluation and assessment to formulate a follow-up plan for a positive depression screen
  • Pharmacological interventions
  • Other interventions or follow-up for the diagnosis or treatment of depression

Examples of a follow-up plan include but are not limited to:

  • Referral to a provider or program for further evaluation for depression, for example, referral to a psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse practitioner, psychologist, clinical social worker, mental health counselor, or other mental health service such as family or group therapy, support group, depression management program, or other service for treatment of depression
  • Other interventions designed to treat depression such as behavioral health evaluation, psychotherapy, pharmacological interventions, or additional treatment options

Patients with a Documented Reason for not Screening for Depression (Denominator Exception)

Patient Reason(s)

Patient refuses to participate

OR

Medical Reason(s)

Documentation of medical reason for not screening patient for depression (e.g., cognitive, functional, or motivational limitations that may impact accuracy of results; patient is in an urgent or emergent situation where time is of the essence and to delay treatment would jeopardize the patient’s health status)

Numerator Instructions:

A depression screen is completed on the date of the encounter or up to 14 calendar days prior to the date of the encounter using an age-appropriate standardized depression screening tool AND if positive, a follow-up plan must be documented on the date of or up to two days after the date of the encounter, such as referral to a provider for additional evaluation, pharmacological interventions or other interventions for the treatment of depression. An example to illustrate the follow-up plan documentation timing: if the encounter is on a Monday from 3-4 pm (day 0) and the patient screens positive, the clinician has through anytime on Wednesday (day 2) to complete follow-up plan documentation.

This is a patient-based measure. Depression screening is required once per measurement period, not at all encounters. An age-appropriate, standardized, and validated depression screening tool must be used for numerator compliance. The name of the age-appropriate standardized depression screening tool utilized must be documented in the medical record. This measure does not require documentation of a specific score, just whether results of the normalized and validated depression screening tool used are considered positive or negative. Each standardized screening tool provides guidance on whether a particular score is considered positive for depression. The depression screening must be reviewed and addressed by the provider on the date of the encounter. Positive pre-screening results indicating a patient is at high risk for self-harm should receive more urgent intervention as determined by the provider practice. The screening should occur during a qualifying encounter or up to 14 calendar days prior to the date of the qualifying encounter.

The measure assesses the most recent depression screening completed either during the qualifying encounter or within the 14 calendar days prior to that encounter. Therefore, a clinician would not be able to complete another screening at the time of the encounter to count towards a follow-up, because that would serve as the most recent screening. In order to satisfy the follow-up requirement for a patient screening positively, the eligible clinician would need to provide one of the aforementioned follow-up actions, which does not include use of a standardized depression screening tool.

The follow-up plan MUST still be provided for and discussed with the patient during the qualifying encounter used to evaluate the numerator. However, documentation of the follow-up plan can occur up to two calendar days after the qualifying encounter, in accordance with the policies of an eligible clinician or provider’s practice or health system. All services should be documented during, or as soon as practicable, after the qualifying encounter in order to maintain an accurate medical record.

Should a patient screen positive for depression, a clinician should:
•Only order pharmacological intervention when appropriate and after sufficient diagnostic evaluation. However, for the purposes of this measure, additional screening and assessment during the qualifying encounter will not qualify as a follow-up plan.
•Opt to complete a suicide risk assessment when appropriate and based on individual patient characteristics. However, for the purposes of this measure, a suicide risk assessment or additional screening using a standardized tool, will not qualify as a follow-up plan.

Numerator Options:

Performance Met: Screening for depression is documented as being positive AND a follow-up plan is documented (G8431)

OR

Performance Met: Screening for depression is documented as negative, a follow-up plan is not required (G8510)

OR

Denominator Exception: Screening for depression not completed, documented reason or medical screening (G8433)

OR

Performance Not Met: Depression screening not documented, reason not given (G8432)

OR

Performance Not Met: Screening for depression documented as positive, follow- up plan not documented, reason not given (G8511)


Tags

CQM-2023, CQM-eCQM-2023, CQM-eCQM-MVP-2023, CQM-MVP-2023, ecqm-2023, MVP-2023