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2024 MIPS Measure #453: Percentage of Patients Who Died from Cancer Receiving Systemic Cancer-Directed Therapy in the Last 14 Days of Life (lower score – better)



MIPS Clinical Quality Measures (CQMS)

‌MEASURE TYPE: Outcome – High Priority


Percentage of patients who died from cancer receiving systemic cancer-directed therapy in the last 14 days of life..


This measure is to be submitted a minimum of once per performance period for patients who died of cancer during the measurement year. It is anticipated that Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) eligible clinicians who provide services for patients with the diagnosis of cancer will submit this measure.

‌Measure Submission Type

Measure data may be submitted by individual MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries. The listed denominator criteria are used to identify the intended patient population. The numerator options included in this specification are used to submit the quality actions as allowed by the measure. The quality data codes listed do not need to be submitted by MIPS eligible clinicians, groups, or third-party intermediaries that utilize this modality for submissions; however, these codes may be submitted for those third-party intermediaries that utilize Medicare Part B claims data. For more information regarding Application Programming Interface (API), please refer to the Quality Payment Program (QPP) website.


Patients who died from cancer

Denominator Criteria (Eligible Cases):

Diagnosis of cancer (ICD-10-CM): C00.0, C00.1, C00.2, C00.3, C00.4, C00.5, C00.6, C00.8, C00.9, C01, C02.0, C02.1, C02.2, C02.3, C02.4, C02.8, C02.9, C03.0, C03.1, C03.9, C04.0, C04.1, C04.8, C04.9, C05.0, C05.1, C05.2, C05.8, C05.9, C06.0, C06.1, C06.2, C06.80, C06.89, C06.9, C07, C08.0, C08.1, C08.9, C09.0, C09.1, C09.8, C09.9, C10.0, C10.1, C10.2, C10.3, C10.4, C10.8, C10.9, C11.0, C11.1, C11.2, C11.3, C11.8, C11.9, C12, C13.0, C13.1, C13.2, C13.8, C13.9, C14.0, C14.2, C14.8, C15.3, C15.4, C15.5, C15.8, C15.9, C16.0, C16.1, C16.2, C16.3, C16.4, C16.5, C16.6, C16.8, C16.9, C17.0, C17.1, C17.2, C17.3, C17.8, C17.9, C18.0, C18.1, C18.2, C18.3, C18.4, C18.5, C18.6, C18.7, C18.8, C18.9, C19, C20, C21.0, C21.1, C21.2, C21.8, C22.0, C22.1, C22.2, C22.3, C22.4, C22.7, C22.8, C22.9, C23, C24.0, C24.1, C24.8, C24.9, C25.0, C25.1, C25.2, C25.3, C25.4, C25.7, C25.8, C25.9, C26.0, C26.1, C26.9, C30.0, C30.1, C31.0, C31.1, C31.2, C31.3, C31.8, C31.9, C32.0, C32.1, C32.2, C32.3, C32.8, C32.9, C33, C34.00, C34.01, C34.02, C34.10, C34.11, C34.12, C34.2, C34.30, C34.31, C34.32, C34.80, C34.81, C34.82, C34.90, C34.91, C34.92, C37, C38.0, C38.1, C38.2, C38.3, C38.4, C38.8, C39.0, C39.9, C40.00, C40.01, C40.02, C40.10, C40.11, C40.12, C40.20, C40.21, C40.22, C40.30, C40.31, C40.32, C40.80, C40.81, C40.82, C40.90, C40.91, C40.92, C41.0, C41.1, C41.2, C41.3, C41.4, C41.9, C43.0, C43.10, C43.111, C43.112, C43.121, C43.122, C43.20, C43.21, C43.22, C43.30, C43.31, C43.39, C43.4, C43.51, C43.52, C43.59, C43.60, C43.61, C43.62, C43.70, C43.71, C43.72, C43.8, C43.9, C44.00, C44.01, C44.02, C44.09, C44.101, C44.1021, C44.1022, C44.1091, C44.1092, C44.111, C44.1121, C44.1122, C44.1191, C44.1192, C44.121, C44.1221, C44.1222, C44.1291, C44.1292, C44.131, C44.1321, C44.1322, C44.1391, C44.1392, C44.191, C44.1921, C44.1922, C44.1991, C44.1992, C44.201, C44.202, C44.209, C44.211, C44.212, C44.219, C44.221, C44.222, C44.229, C44.291, C44.292, C44.299, C44.300, C44.301, C44.309, C44.310, C44.311, C44.319, C44.320, C44.321, C44.329, C44.390, C44.391, C44.399, C44.40, C44.41, C44.42, C44.49, C44.500, C44.501, C44.509, C44.510, C44.511, C44.519, C44.520, C44.521, C44.529, C44.590, C44.591, C44.599, C44.601, C44.602, C44.609, C44.611, C44.612, C44.619, C44.621, C44.622, C44.629, C44.691, C44.692, C44.699, C44.701, C44.702, C44.709, C44.711, C44.712, C44.719, C44.721, C44.722, C44.729, C44.791, C44.792, C44.799, C44.80, C44.81, C44.82, C44.89, C44.90, C44.91, C44.92, C44.99, C45.0, C45.1, C45.2, C45.7, C45.9, C46.0, C46.1, C46.2, C46.3, C46.4, C46.50, C46.51, C46.52, C46.7, C46.9, C47.0, C47.10, C47.11, C47.12, C47.20, C47.21, C47.22, C47.3, C47.4, C47.5, C47.6, C47.8, C47.9, C48.0, C48.1, C48.2, C48.8, C49.0, C49.10, C49.11, C49.12, C49.20, C49.21, C49.22, C49.3, C49.A0, C49.A1, C49.A2, C49.A3, C49.A4, C49.A5, C49.A9, C49.4, C49.5, C49.6, C49.8, C49.9, C4A.0, C4A.10, C4A.111, C4A.112, C4A.121, C4A.122, C4A.20, C4A.21, C4A.22, C4A.30, C4A.31, C4A.39, C4A.4, C4A.51, C4A.52, C4A.59, C4A.60, C4A.61, C4A.62, C4A.70, C4A.71, C4A.72, C4A.8, C4A.9, C50.011, C50.012, C50.019, C50.021, C50.022, C50.029, C50.111, C50.112, C50.119, C50.121, C50.122, C50.129, C50.211, C50.212, C50.219, C50.221, C50.222, C50.229, C50.311, C50.312, C50.319, C50.321, C50.322, C50.329, C50.411, C50.412, C50.419, C50.421, C50.422, C50.429, C50.511, C50.512, C50.519, C50.521, C50.522, C50.529, C50.611, C50.612, C50.619, C50.621, C50.622, C50.629, C50.811, C50.812, C50.819, C50.821, C50.822, C50.829, C50.911, C50.912, C50.919, C50.921, C50.922, C50.929, C51.0, C51.1, C51.2, C51.8, C51.9, C52, C53.0, C53.1, C53.8, C53.9, C54.0, C54.1, C54.2, C54.3, C54.8, C54.9, C55, C56.1, C56.2, C56.3, C56.9, C57.00, C57.01, C57.02, C57.10, C57.11, C57.12, C57.20, C57.21, C57.22, C57.3, C57.4, C57.7, C57.8, C57.9, C58, C60.0, C60.1, C60.2, C60.8, C60.9, C61, C62.00, C62.01, C62.02, C62.10, C62.11, C62.12, C62.90, C62.91, C62.92, C63.00, C63.01, C63.02, C63.10, C63.11, C63.12, C63.2, C63.7, C63.8, C63.9, C64.1, C64.2, C64.9, C65.1, C65.2, C65.9, C66.1, C66.2, C66.9, C67.0, C67.1, C67.2, C67.3, C67.4, C67.5, C67.6, C67.7, C67.8, C67.9, C68.0, C68.1, C68.8, C68.9, C69.00, C69.01, C69.02, C69.10, C69.11, C69.12, C69.20, C69.21, C69.22, C69.30, C69.31, C69.32, C69.40, C69.41, C69.42, C69.50, C69.51, C69.52, C69.60, C69.61, C69.62, C69.80, C69.81, C69.82, C69.90, C69.91, C69.92, C70.0, C70.1, C70.9, C71.0, C71.1, C71.2, C71.3, C71.4, C71.5, C71.6, C71.7, C71.8, C71.9, C72.0, C72.1, C72.20, C72.21, C72.22, C72.30, C72.31, C72.32, C72.40, C72.41, C72.42, C72.50, C72.59, C72.9, C73, C74.00, C74.01, C74.02, C74.10, C74.11, C74.12, C74.90, C74.91, C74.92, C75.0, C75.1, C75.2, C75.3, C75.4, C75.5, C75.8, C75.9, C76.0, C76.1, C76.2, C76.3, C76.40, C76.41, C76.42, C76.50, C76.51, C76.52, C76.8, C77.0, C77.1, C77.2, C77.3, C77.4, C77.5, C77.8, C77.9, C78.00, C78.01, C78.02, C78.1, C78.2, C78.30, C78.39, C78.4, C78.5, C78.6, C78.7, C78.80, C78.89, C79.00, C79.01, C79.02, C79.10, C79.11, C79.19, C79.2, C79.31, C79.32, C79.40, C79.49, C79.51, C79.52, C79.60, C79.61, C79.62, C79.63, C79.70, C79.71, C79.72, C79.81, C79.82, C79.89, C79.9, C7A.00, C7A.010, C7A.011, C7A.012, C7A.019, C7A.020, C7A.021, C7A.022, C7A.023, C7A.024, C7A.025, C7A.026, C7A.029, C7A.090, C7A.091, C7A.092, C7A.093, C7A.094, C7A.095, C7A.096, C7A.098, C7A.1, C7A.8, C7B.00, C7B.01, C7B.02, C7B.03, C7B.04, C7B.09, C7B.1, C7B.8, C80.0, C80.1, C80.2, C81.00, C81.01, C81.02, C81.03, C81.04, C81.05, C81.06, C81.07, C81.08, C81.09, C81.10, C81.11, C81.12, C81.13, C81.14, C81.15, C81.16, C81.17, C81.18, C81.19, C81.20, C81.21, C81.22, C81.23, C81.24, C81.25, C81.26, C81.27, C81.28, C81.29, C81.30, C81.31, C81.32, C81.33, C81.34, C81.35, C81.36, C81.37, C81.38, C81.39, C81.40, C81.41, C81.42, C81.43, C81.44, C81.45, C81.46, C81.47, C81.48, C81.49, C81.70, C81.71, C81.72, C81.73, C81.74, C81.75, C81.76, C81.77, C81.78, C81.79, C81.90, C81.91, C81.92, C81.93, C81.94, C81.95, C81.96, C81.97, C81.98, C81.99, C82.00, C82.01, C82.02, C82.03, C82.04, C82.05, C82.06, C82.07, C82.08, C82.09, C82.10, C82.11, C82.12, C82.13, C82.14, C82.15, C82.16, C82.17, C82.18, C82.19, C82.20, C82.21, C82.22, C82.23, C82.24, C82.25, C82.26, C82.27, C82.28, C82.29, C82.30, C82.31, C82.32, C82.33, C82.34, C82.35, C82.36, C82.37, C82.38, C82.39, C82.40, C82.41, C82.42, C82.43, C82.44, C82.45, C82.46, C82.47, C82.48, C82.49, C82.50, C82.51, C82.52, C82.53, C82.54, C82.55, C82.56, C82.57, C82.58, C82.59, C82.60, C82.61, C82.62, C82.63, C82.64, C82.65, C82.66, C82.67, C82.68, C82.69, C82.80, C82.81, C82.82, C82.83, C82.84, C82.85, C82.86, C82.87, C82.88, C82.89, C82.90, C82.91, C82.92, C82.93, C82.94, C82.95, C82.96, C82.97, C82.98, C82.99, C83.00, C83.01, C83.02, C83.03, C83.04, C83.05, C83.06, C83.07, C83.08, C83.09, C83.10, C83.11, C83.12, C83.13, C83.14, C83.15, C83.16, C83.17, C83.18, C83.19, C83.30, C83.31, C83.32, C83.33, C83.34, C83.35, C83.36, C83.37, C83.38, C83.39, C83.50, C83.51, C83.52, C83.53, C83.54, C83.55, C83.56, C83.57, C83.58, C83.59, C83.70, C83.71, C83.72, C83.73, C83.74, C83.75, C83.76, C83.77, C83.78, C83.79, C83.80, C83.81, C83.82, C83.83, C83.84, C83.85, C83.86, C83.87, C83.88, C83.89, C83.90, C83.91, C83.92, C83.93, C83.94, C83.95, C83.96, C83.97, C83.98, C83.99, C84.00, C84.01, C84.02, C84.03, C84.04, C84.05, C84.06, C84.07, C84.08, C84.09, C84.10, C84.11, C84.12, C84.13, C84.14, C84.15, C84.16, C84.17, C84.18, C84.19, C84.40, C84.41, C84.42, C84.43, C84.44, C84.45, C84.46, C84.47, C84.48, C84.49, C84.60, C84.61, C84.62, C84.63, C84.64, C84.65, C84.66, C84.67, C84.68, C84.69, C84.7A, C84.70, C84.71, C84.72, C84.73, C84.74, C84.75, C84.76, C84.77, C84.78, C84.79, C84.90, C84.91, C84.92, C84.93, C84.94, C84.95, C84.96, C84.97, C84.98, C84.99, C84.A0, C84.A1, C84.A2, C84.A3, C84.A4, C84.A5, C84.A6, C84.A7, C84.A8, C84.A9, C84.Z0, C84.Z1, C84.Z2, C84.Z3, C84.Z4, C84.Z5, C84.Z6, C84.Z7, C84.Z8, C84.Z9, C85.10, C85.11, C85.12, C85.13, C85.14, C85.15, C85.16, C85.17, C85.18, C85.19, C85.20, C85.21, C85.22, C85.23, C85.24, C85.25, C85.26, C85.27, C85.28, C85.29, C85.80, C85.81, C85.82, C85.83, C85.84, C85.85, C85.86, C85.87, C85.88, C85.89, C85.90, C85.91, C85.92, C85.93, C85.94, C85.95, C85.96, C85.97, C85.98, C85.99, C86.0, C86.1, C86.2, C86.3, C86.4, C86.5, C86.6, C88.0, C88.2, C88.3, C88.4, C88.8, C88.9, C90.00, C90.01, C90.02, C90.10, C90.11, C90.12, C90.20, C90.21, C90.22, C90.30, C90.31, C90.32, C91.00, C91.01, C91.02, C91.10, C91.11, C91.12, C91.30, C91.31, C91.32, C91.40, C91.41, C91.42, C91.50, C91.51, C91.52, C91.60, C91.61, C91.62, C91.90, C91.91, C91.92, C91.A0, C91.A1, C91.A2, C91.Z0, C91.Z1, C91.Z2, C92.00, C92.01, C92.02, C92.10, C92.11, C92.12, C92.20, C92.21, C92.22, C92.30, C92.31, C92.32, C92.40, C92.41, C92.42, C92.50, C92.51, C92.52, C92.60, C92.61, C92.62, C92.90, C92.91, C92.92, C92.A0, C92.A1, C92.A2, C92.Z0, C92.Z1, C92.Z2, C93.00, C93.01, C93.02, C93.10, C93.11, C93.12, C93.30, C93.31, C93.32, C93.90, C93.91, C93.92, C93.Z0, C93.Z1, C93.Z2, C94.00, C94.01, C94.02, C94.20, C94.21, C94.22, C94.30, C94.31, C94.32, C94.40, C94.41, C94.42, C94.6, C94.80, C94.81, C94.82, C95.00, C95.01, C95.02, C95.10, C95.11, C95.12, C95.90, C95.91, C95.92, C96.0, C96.20, C96.21, C96.22, C96.29, C96.4, C96.5, C96.6, C96.9, C96.A, C96.Z, D37.01, D37.02, D37.030, D37.031, D37.032, D37.039, D37.04, D37.05, D37.09, D37.1, D37.2, D37.3, D37.4, D37.5, D37.6, D37.8, D37.9, D38.0, D38.1, D38.2, D38.3, D38.4, D38.5, D38.6, D39.0, D39.10, D39.11, D39.12, D39.2, D39.8, D39.9, D40.0, D40.10, D40.11, D40.12, D40.8, D40.9, D41.00, D41.01, D41.02, D41.10, D41.11, D41.12, D41.20, D41.21, D41.22, D41.3, D41.4, D41.8, D41.9, D42.0, D42.1, D42.9, D43.0, D43.1, D43.2, D43.3, D43.4, D43.8, D43.9, D44.0, D44.10, D44.11, D44.12, D44.2, D44.3, D44.4, D44.5, D44.6, D44.7, D44.9, D45, D46.0, D46.1, D46.20, D46.21, D46.22, D46.4, D46.9, D46.A, D46.B, D46.C, D46.Z, D47.01, D47.02, D47.09, D47.1, D47.2, D47.3, D47.4, D47.9, D47.Z1, D47.Z2, D47.Z9, D48.0, D48.19, D48.2, D48.3, D48.4, D48.5, D48.60, D48.61, D48.62, D48.7, D48.9, D49.0, D49.1, D49.2, D49.3, D49.4, D49.511, D49.512, D49.519, D49.59, D49.6, D49.7, D49.81, D49.89, D49.9


At least two patient encounters during the performance period (CPT): 99202, 99203, 99204, 99205, 99212, 99213, 99214, 99215


Telehealth Modifier (including but not limited to): GQ, GT, 95, POS 02, POS 10


Patients who died from cancer: G9846 


Patients who received systemic cancer-directed therapy in the last 14 days of life 


Systemic Cancer-directed Therapy ― includes: 

  • All traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy (such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, plant alkaloidsand terpenoids, topoisomerase inhibitors, and antitumor antibiotics); 
  • Immunotherapy; 
  • Biologics (such as Herceptin, Rituxan); and 
  • Targeted agents 

Do not include supportive care therapies (e.g., growth factors, bisphosphonates, RANK ligand inhibitors, nausea medications or fluids if these are not given in association with “systemic cancer-directed therapy”). Hormonal therapies and steroids are not included in this systemic cancer directed therapy definition. 

Numerator Instructions: 

INVERSE MEASURE – A lower calculated performance rate for this measure indicates better clinical care or control. The “Performance Not Met” numerator option for this measure is the representation of the better clinical quality or control. Submitting that numerator option will produce a performance rate that trends closer to 0%, as quality increases. For inverse measures, a rate of 100% means all of the denominator eligible patients did not receive the appropriate care or were not in proper control. 

Numerator Options: 

Performance Met: Patient received systemic cancer-directed therapy in the last 14 days of life (G9847) 


Performance Not Met: Patient did not receive systemic cancer-directed therapy in the last 14 days of life (G9848) 


Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States (1) and 609,360 cancer-related deaths are projected to occur in 2022 (1). Chemotherapy utilization at the end of life is associated with a worse quality of life near death among patients with good baseline performance status (2), ED visits, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, dying in an ICU (3), and higher estimated costs of care (4-5). Yet, as described in the following section, overutilization of chemotherapy in the last two weeks of life persists. The 2015 Institute of Medicine report Dying in America states that a palliative approach often offers the best chance of maintaining the highest possible quality of life for those living with advanced serious illness (6) and proposes, as a core component to quality end-of-life care, to offer palliative care services and personalize revision of the care plan and access to services based on the changing needs of the patient and family (6). The purpose of this measure is to encourage timely enrollment in palliative care that focuses on symptom management, rather than low utility and aggressive treatments, among dying cancer patients. The ultimate outcome is an improved quality of life, positive death experience, and reduction in resource utilization costs. 

Lastly, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Quality and Outcomes Committee recently reviewed 528 existing oncological quality measures and concepts to identify important cancer quality and outcome measures. Measures and concepts were evaluated according to importance, supporting evidence, opportunity for improvement, and ease of measurement; CBE 0210 was one of seven cross-cutting measures selected for endorsement as a universally appropriate measure to evaluate quality of oncology care. (7) 


(1) Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., Fuchs, H. E., & Jemal, A.. (2022). Cancer statistics, 2022. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 72(1), 7–33. 

(2) Prigerson, H. G., Bao, Y., Shah, M. A., Paulk, M. E., Leblanc, T. W., Schneider, B. J., Garrido, M. M., Reid, M. C., Berlin, D. A., Adelson, K. B., Neugut, A. I., & Maciejewski, P. K.. (2015). Chemotherapy Use, Performance Status, and Quality of Life at the End of Life. JAMA Oncology, 1(6), 778. 

(3) Crawford, G. B., Dzierżanowski, T., Hauser, K., Larkin, P., Luque-Blanco, A. I., Murphy, I., Puchalski, C. M., & Ripamonti, C. I.. (2021). Care of the adult cancer patient at the end of life: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines. ESMO Open, 6(4), 100225. 

(4) Garrido, M. M., Prigerson, H. G., Bao, Y., & Maciejewski, P. K.. (2016). Chemotherapy Use in the Months Before Death and Estimated Costs of Care in the Last Week of Life. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 51(5), 875–881.e2. 

(5) Ramsey, S. D., Fedorenko, C., Chauhan, R., Mcgee, R., Lyman, G. H., Kreizenbeck, K., & Bansal, A.. (2015). Baseline Estimates of Adherence to American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Board of Internal Medicine Choosing Wisely Initiative Among Patients With Cancer Enrolled With a Large Regional Commercial Health Insurer. Journal of Oncology Practice, 11(4), 338–343. 

(6) IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2015. Dying in America: Improving quality and honoring individual preferences near the end of life. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 

(7) D’Amico, T. A., Bandini, L. A. M., Balch, A., Benson, A. B., Edge, S. B., Fitzgerald, C. L., Green, R. J., Koh, W.-J., Kolodziej, M., Kumar, S., Meropol, N. J., Mohler, J. L., Pfister, D., Walters, R. S., & Carlson, R. W.. (2020). Quality Measurement in Cancer Care: A Review and Endorsement of High-Impact Measures and Concepts. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 18(3), 250–259. 


The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) states the following in its Palliative Care guideline: 

“In general, patients with weeks to days to live (ie, dying patients) should discontinue all treatments not directly contributing to patient comfort. Intensive palliative care focusing on symptom management should be provided in addition to preparation for the dying process. Referral for hospice care should be placed, if not already done” (NCCN, 2022, MS-13). 

National Comprehensive Cancer Center (NCCN) Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Palliative Care, V.1.2022. 

ASCO updated the 2012 ASCO Provisional Clinical Opinion (PCO) on the integration of palliative care into standard oncology care and transitioned the content into a guideline recommendation. 

Patients with advanced cancer, inpatients and outpatients, should receive dedicated palliative care services early in the disease course and concurrent with active treatment. Referring patients to interdisciplinary palliative care teams is optimal, and services may complement existing programs. Providers may refer caregivers of patients with early or advanced cancer to palliative care services. 

Ferrel BR, Temel JS, Temin S, et al. Integration of Palliative Care Into Standard Oncology Care: ASCO Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Oncol 2017; 35:96-112. 


The Measure is not a clinical guideline, does not establish a standard of medical care, and has not been tested for all potential applications. 

The Measure, while copyrighted, can be reproduced and distributed, without modification, for noncommercial purposes, e.g., use by health care providers in connection with their practices. Commercial use is defined as the sale, license, or distribution of the Measure for commercial gain, or incorporation of the Measure into a product or service that is sold, licensed or distributed for commercial gain. 

Commercial uses of the Measure require a license agreement between the user and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and prior written approval of ASCO. Contact for licensing this measure. Neither ASCO nor its members shall be responsible for any use of the Measure. 

ASCO encourages use of the Measure by other health care professionals, where appropriate. 


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